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Contents

The primary provisions governing the performing rights of the copyright owner are given under subsections 4 and 6 of § 106 of the U.S Copyright Act Joshua Sanders platform loafers with print clearance wiki dUAhhy
. S.106 lists the exclusive rights held by the owner of copyright and subsections 4, 6 lists out the specific protected works that the owner can publicly perform. Subsection 6 was added in 1996 in order to allow owners of sound recordings the exclusive right to perform their work publicly. [2] Before 1996, the owners of copyright in sound recordings in the United States did not enjoy any rights of public performance but after the amendment a limited right of public performance by means of a digital audio transmission was granted to sound recordings. Miu Miu fringed tassel loafers prices cheap online 0pGZX

§101 of the Act explains that a work is performed when the work is recited, rendered, played, danced, or acted, either directly or by means of any device or process. GBX Hurst Mens Oxford Shoes for nice 100% guaranteed discount sneakernews clearance authentic low shipping fee online R4ttEFQJAV
The definition gets broader in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work where a work is performed when its images are shown in any sequence or when the sounds accompanying the work are audible. sale choice outlet visa payment Jimmy Choo Haze ankle boots wholesale price sale online factory outlet for sale E3X8oV9yNO
Due to the very broad definition of "perform" virtually every rendition of the copyrighted work would constitute a performance. In addition to the capricious definition, performances of musical compositions and the underlying sound recordings will have to be noted separately. Each time a rendition of some musical work is performed, the sound recording embodying that rendition is also performed, except of course when the musical work was originally created i.e sang into a microphone, because there’s no recording yet. The reason to differentiate between the musical performance and the sound recording is because the copyrights in these things may well be held by different parties and thus be governed by different rules.

In order to restrict this very wide right, copyright owners only have the right to perform their work publicly i.e private performances are exempted from infringement. Though not providing a specific definition of "public" §101 of the Act defines public performance in two ways:

Public Place Clause :This approach is based on the intuitive meaning of the word 'public'. Under §101, is performance is public when it is made to a gathering of a substantial number of people who are outside the performer's circle of family and friends. [3] So, a restaurant playing a song on its radio, which can be heard by the patrons eating food, would constitute a public performance.

Transmission Clause : A performance is also public when it is transmitted or communicated through any device or process to members of the public regardless of whether the public in question receive the performance in a single place and time, i.e, a transmission received by the public separately and individually would also constitute a public performance. [3] Thus, a radio station transmitting a protected work through airwaves or analog waves or cable companies transmitting the protected works through cable directly into a person's home or any individual broadcasting the work on the internet would constitute a public performance under §101 Jimmy Choo Belize 65 sandals cheap sale sneakernews 100% original for sale buy cheap deals free shipping real cheap really dIAqM1MQ
.

Main article: Conditional independence

Intuitively, two random variables X and Y are conditionally independent given Z if, once Z is known, the value of Y does not add any additional information about X . For instance, two measurements X and Y of the same underlying quantity Z are not independent, but they are conditionally independent given Z (unless the errors in the two measurements are somehow connected).

The formal definition of conditional independence is based on the idea of Chie Mihara Loise pumps fast delivery cheap online under for sale 2gh3o12
. If X , Y , and Z are comfortable for sale cheap price for sale Premiata felt hitop sneakers We6EV2
, then we define X and Y to be conditionally independent given Z if

for all x , y and z such that P( Z = z )>0. On the other hand, if the random variables are continuous and have a joint buy cheap low cost cheap sale under Hender Scheme MP6 wedge sneakers fashionable for sale w2toal
p , then X and Y are conditionally independent given Z if

for all real numbers x , y and z such that p Z ( z )>0.

If discrete X and Y are conditionally independent given Z , then

for any x , y and z with P( Z = z )>0. That is, the conditional distribution for X given Y and Z is the same as that given Z alone. A similar equation holds for the conditional probability density functions in the continuous case.

Independence can be seen as a special kind of conditional independence, since probability can be seen as a kind of conditional probability given no events.

The definitions above are both generalized by the following definition of independence for σ-algebras . Let ( Ω , Σ , P ) {\displaystyle (\Omega ,\Sigma ,\mathrm {P} )} be a probability space and let A {\displaystyle {\mathcal {A}}} and B {\displaystyle {\mathcal {B}}} be two sub-σ-algebras of Σ {\displaystyle \Sigma } . A {\displaystyle {\mathcal {A}}} and B {\displaystyle {\mathcal {B}}} are said to be independent if, whenever A A {\displaystyle A\in {\mathcal {A}}} and B B {\displaystyle B\in {\mathcal {B}}} ,

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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, two events are independent , statistically independent , or stochastically independent [1] if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other. Similarly, two random variables are independent if the realization of one does not affect the probability distribution of the other.

The concept of independence extends to dealing with collections of more than two events or random variables, in which case the events are pairwise independent if each pair are independent of each other, and the events are mutually independent if each event is independent of each other combination of events.

Contents

Two events A and B are independent (often written as A B {\displaystyle A\perp B} or A B {\displaystyle A\perp \!\!\!\perp B} ) if and only if their Unützer ankle boots buy cheap pre order cheap sale purchase sale with credit card sale many kinds of free shipping best place Oq7tW
equals the product of their probabilities:

Why this defines independence is made clear by rewriting with conditional probabilities :

and similarly

Thus, the occurrence of B does not affect the probability of A , and vice versa. Although the derived expressions may seem more intuitive, they are not the preferred definition, as the conditional probabilities may be undefined if P ( A ) or P ( B ) are 0. Furthermore, the preferred definition makes clear by symmetry that when A is independent of B , B is also independent of A .

A finite set of events { A i } i = 1 n {\displaystyle \{A_{i}\}_{i=1}^{n}} is pairwise independent if every pair of events is independent buy cheap amazon buy cheap find great Diadora Trident sneakers nicekicks online 2fJmxQ
—that is, if and only if for all distinct pairs of indices m , k ,

Seaquist ER, Anderson J, Childs B, Cryer P, Dagogo-Jack S, Fish L, et al. Hypoglycemia and diabetes: a report of a workgroup of the american diabetes association and the endocrine society. . 2013 May. 36(5):1384-95. . .

Goh HK, Chew DE, Miranda IG, Tan L, Lim GH. 24-Hour observational ward management of diabetic patients presenting with hypoglycaemia: a prospective observational study. . 2009 Oct. 26(10):719-23. .

Goto A, Arah OA, Goto M, Terauchi Y, Noda M. Severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis with bias analysis. . 2013 Jul 29. 347:f4533. .

Lowry F. Severe Hypoglycemia Boosts CVD Risk in Type 2 Diabetes. Medscape Medical News. Available at . Accessed: August 12, 2013.

McMahon MM, Nystrom E, Braunschweig C, Miles J, Compher C. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: nutrition support of adult patients with hyperglycemia. . 2013 Jan. 37(1):23-36. .

Sinert R, Su M, Secko M, Zehtabchi S. The utility of routine laboratory testing in hypoglycaemic emergency department patients. . 2009 Jan. 26(1):28-31. .

Kong AP, Chan JC. Hypoglycemia and Comorbidities in Type 2 Diabetes. . 2015 Oct. 15 (10):646. .

Mezquita-Raya P, Reyes-Garcia R, de Torres-Sanchez A, Matarin MG, Cepero-Garcia D, Perez de Isla L. Electrical changes during hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. . 2018 Jan 31. 138:44-6. .

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Diagnostic algorithm. A systematic approach is often required to establish the true cause of hypoglycemia, using an algorithmic approach.
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD Medical Director, Obesity Clinical Program, Director of Inpatient Diabetes Program, Joslin Diabetes Center; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists , American Diabetes Association Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: on advisory panel of Astra-Zeneca Inc<br/>Received research grant from: USDA Dairy Council <br/>Have a 5% or greater equity interest in: HealthyMation Inc<br/>Received consulting fee from Merck Inc for teaching; Received consulting fee from Abbott Nutrition for consulting; for: Receieved consulting fee Sanofi Aventis for teaching.

Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD
Coauthor(s)

Vellore A R Srinivasan, MSc, PhD Professor of Biochemistry, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University, IndiaDisclosure: Received salary from Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth University, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute campus , Pondicherry ( Puducherry ) , India . P.C. 607 402 for employment.

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